Keeling Egrisi ya da Killing Egrisi(olduren egri) mi desem?!

Mayis 2013’de Hawaii’deki Mauna Loa Gozlemevi’nde kuresel iklim degisikligi acisindan hayati bir olcum yapildi! Dr.Keeling ve arkadaslari, Mauna Loa Gozlemevi’nde yaklasik 50 yildir kuresel iklim degisikliginin bas aktorlerden biri olan havadaki karbondioksit miktarini olcmekteler. Olcum mantigi basit: Havadan ornek aliniyor, ornek icinde atom bazinda sayim yapiliyor ve bir milyon parcada kac karbondioksit parcasi oldugu tespit ediliyor. Ornegin, iklim degisikligi acisindan kritik sinir, havada bulunan 1 milyon parcada 350 parca karbondioksit! Yapilan butun kuresel toplantilar ve anlasmalar bu siniri gecmemek uzere kurgulaniyor; fakat gectigimiz gunlerde Mauna Loa Gozlemevi’nde yapilan olcum gosterdi ki su an ulasilan karbondioksit seviyesi milyon parcada 399,77 parca ya da yuvarlak hesap 400 ppm! Ekibin olcumleri basladigi 1960 yilindan 2013 yilina kadar 320 ppm’den 400 ppm’e gelinmis durumda ve insanin kanini donduran bu gelismeyi gosteren sayisal grafige Keeling Egrisi deniyor ya da benim degisimle Killing Curve(olduren egri)!Keeling

Peki, milyon parcada 400 parca karbondioksit sayilmasi kuresel iklim degisikligi acisindan ne demek? Ongorulemez hava ve yer kosullari demek? Ongorulemez buyuklukte azgin yanginlar, kasirgalar ve diger hava hareketleri, kurakliklar, zamansal ve miktarsal beklenmedik yagislar, liman kentleri ve sahil yerleskeleri acisindan buyuk tehdit olusturan deniz su seviyelerinin artmasi ve hatta Bill McGuire gibi bilim insanlarina gore depremler ve depremlerin yaratacagi tsunamiler, volkanlar ve insanlar acisindan biyolojik silahlara donusecek bagisiklik sistemlerimizin taniyamayacagi mutant viruslerin, bakterilerin ve mikro organizmalarin yaratacagi kitlesel enfeksiyonlar gibi afetler demek! Ve butun bunlar; ongorulemez buyuklukte maddi ve manevi kayiplar demek! Peki, bu ahval ve serâit icersinde yasadigimiz kentlerin ve bizlerin durumu ne ve nasil olacak?

Evet, nasil bir gelecek bekliyor sehirlerimizi? Birlesmis Milletler’in hazirladigi rapora gore Kuzey Amerika nufusunun yuzde 82’si kentte yasiyor ve 2050’ye kadar bu oranin yuzde 90 olmasi bekleniyor! Avrupa’da yuzde 73 kentlerde yasiyor ve 2050’ye kadar Avrupa kent nufusunun yuzde 84’e cikmasi bekleniyor. Afrika kentsel nufus acisindan yuzde 40! 2050 yili icin beklenti, yuzde 62! Ya Asya?! Asya su an yuzde 42 seviyelerinde; fakat 2050’ye kadar kentsel nufusun yuzde 65 olmasi bekleniyor! Milyonlarca insan kentlere akiyor, doguyor ve oluyor! Milyonlarcasi “slumdog” tadinda kentsel yasamlarini idame ettirmeye calisiyor! Adalet ve sefkatin yerini kuresel sehvet ve egoizme terk ettigi milyonluk nufuslara sahip dev kentlerde yasiyorlar!

Bu dev kentlerin yasadigi iklim degisikliginin yaratacagi afetler acisindan uc asama tanimlamak mumkun: Birinci asama afet sezme ve onleme, ikinci asama afete direnis ve ucuncu asama afet sonrasi dirilis!

Gunumuzde bazi bilim insanlari afet sezme ve onleme verimliligini artirmasi bakimindan birinci asama icin kentlerin daha da buyuyup, gelismesi taraftari. Bu sekilde 7 milyara cikan dunya nufusu; gorece kucuk kent alanlarina sikisarak daha az dogal alani arsalastirarak tuketir ve dar alanlarda kisa paslasmalarin enerji ve kaynak verimliligi sayesinde karbon ayak izini en aza indirir. Bir diger taraftan da kentlerdeki bu yogunlasmanin getirecegi sinerji sayesinde kuresel iklim degisikliginin yaratacagi yepyeni sorunlari cozmede buyuk katki uretecek kentin yaratici problem cozme kapasitesi en ust seviyelere cikar.

Birinci asama olan afet sezme ve onleme acisindan kentlerin devlesmesinin ve kirlarin insansizlasmasinin iklim degisimini engellemek acisindan enerji ve kaynak kullanimi verimliligi itibari ile faydalari olacaktir; fakat  Amazonlar’i Amazonlar yapan verimli kara toprak terra preta’nin yine orada yasayan yerli halklarin organik atiklari nedeni olustugunu unutmamak gerekir. Ayrica, bu yerli halklar kendi dogal yasam alanlarinin korunmasinda kentli nufuslara gore cok daha etkin roller alabilmektedirler. Bu baglamda 1. Asamada dahi olcusuz kentlesmenin sosyal ve ekolojik adalet acisindan afetler yaratma kapasitesi, kuresel bir tehlike olarak onumuzde durmaktadir!

İkinci ve ucuncu asama; afete direnis ve dirilis asamasi. Bu asamada kentlerde odaklanma, butun yumurtalari ayni sepete koymak gibi bir sorun yaratiyor. Ornegin gecen sene ABD’de iklim degisimi ile ilgili olusan hasar toplamda yaklasik 100 milyar dolar oldu. Bunun 65 milyar dolari Sandy Kasirgasi, 30 milyar dolari kuraklik ve kuru hava dalgasi, 11 milyar dolari kombine asiri hava kosullari, 1 milyar dolari siddetli yanginlar, 2 milyar dolari İsaac Kasirgasi. Dusunebiliyor musunuz? İklim degisikligine katkinizi minimize etmek icin mega kentlerde toplaniyorsunuz; fakat o gune kadar iklim degisimine yapmis oldugunuz olumsuz katkilar nedeni ile kentinizin uzerinden beklenmedik siddette bir kasirga geciyor ve tum konsepti cokertiyor! Bir dusunun, koca 8 milyon 336 bin kisilik New York kenti; nasil tahliye edilir ve nasil tahliye edilen bu nufus tahliye mevkiinde minimum yardimla kendine yeterli bir toplum haline gelir? Bir de Istanbul’u dusunun iklim degisikligi nedeni ile olusacak afetler karsisinda yeni gelecek nufus arti 15 milyon nufusla neler olur?

Kuresel iklim degisikligi nedeni ile olaganustu hal bolgelerine donusecek dunya kentleri icin cogunlukcu demokrasi mi yoksa cogulcu katilimci demokrasi mi daha yararli olacaktir? Sosyoekonomik ve sosyokulturel farkliliklarin ve bu farkliliklar arasindaki farklarin cok oldugu cografyalarda cogulcu katilimci demokratik yaklasimlar, zit veya farkli kuvvetlere maruz kalan zayif vektorler olarak karsimiza cikacaktir. Hatta, bu zayiflik neredeyse bu yaklasimlari sergileyen toplumlari karar alamayan ya da yonu olmayan skaler buyuklukler sekline getirecektir. Oysaki kuresel iklim degisiminin yaratacagi afetler karsisinda toplumlarin zinde kalabilmesi icin az zamanda cok is yapmalari gerekecektir. Bu da az zamanda cok karar almak demek olacaktir. Iste cogulcu katilimci demokrasi modeliyle az zamanda cok karar nasil alinacaktir ve afetlerin etkilerini hafifletmek icin yapilmasi gereken bir yigin isin altindan nasil kalkilacaktir?

Tarihe baktigimizda pek ic acici ornekler goremiyoruz bu konuda! Weimar donemi Almanya’si mesela! O donemde liberal demokrasiye gecis cabalari, yogun sivil anlasmazliklar ve bunun getirdigi ekonomik sorunlar neticesinde vektorlesememistir ya da yonu olan, zamaninda karar alan ve uygulayan bir yapi insa edilememistir. Alman toplumundaki sorunlari gidermek icin bu az zamanda cok is yapma ihtiyaci Hitler’in secimleri kazanmasina neden olmustur. Sonrasini soylemeye gerek yok! Tam bir facia!

Bu durumda kentlere dolusmamiz kuresel iklim degisimi baglaminda iki acidan sorun yaratiyor:

1. Gelmekte olan afetlerin ikinci ve ucuncu asamalari acisindan yasanabilecek olumsuzluklar.

2. Kuresel iklim degisiminin yaratacagi ongorulemezlik nedeni ile yasanacak olumsuzluklar.

Bu ikincisini biraz daha acabilmek icin biyolojiye bakabiliriz. Bu amacla biyolojiye baktigimizda K ve r secilimi gibi kavramlarla karsilasiyoruz. K secilimi, ongorulebilir istikrarli cevrelerde gerceklesen adaptasyon tipi olarak adlandirilabilir. r secilimi ise, ongorulemez istikrarsiz cevrelerde meydana gelen adaptasyon tipi.

K secilimi, ongorulebilir istikrarli cevrelerde gerceklestigi icin buradaki organizmalar da makro, yani buyuk olur. Hayvanlar ve bitkilerin cogu bunun gibidir! K secilim ortamlarinda ongorulemeyen istikrarsiz degisimler olmadigi icin secim kriteri gorece istikrarli kalir ve bu istikrar, uzun vadeli buyuk genetik mimari(bilgi) yatirimlari, yuksek getiri ile odullendiren istikrarli bir beslenme ortami yaratir. İcinde yasanilan cevrenin problem uzayina ait bilgilere sahip olmak ve bunlari genetik ve kulturel olarak paylasmak surdurulebilirlik acisindan hayati onem kazanir. Bu da K secilim cevrelerine cinsiyet, ask, dogum ve olum ile birlikte buyumeyi getirir! Buna ek olarak satihta genetik ve kulturel alis verisler icin nufusu odaklayan sehirler gibi genetik ve kulturel buyuk bilgi pazarlarinin olusumuna neden olur!

r secilimi ise ongorulemez istikrarsiz cevrelerde meydana geldigi icin buradaki organizmalar mikro, yani cok kucuk olur. Bakteriler ve mikro organizmalar gibi. r secilim ortamlarinda ongorulemeyen istikrarsiz degisimler oldugu icin secim kriteri siddetli degiskenlik icinde olur ve bu degiskenlik, uzun vadeli buyuk genetik(bilgi) mimari yatirimlari hicbir getiri ile odullendirmez. Hatta zarara ugratir. Kisa vadeli kucuk genetik(bilgi) mimari yatirimlari destekler bir beslenme ortami yaratir. r secilim ortami icinde yasanilan cevrenin problem uzayina ait bilgilere sahip olmak ve bunlari genetik ve kulturel olarak paylasmak surdurulebilirlik acisindan ya cok az ya da hicbir oneme sahip degildir! Cunku cevresel degisimin hizi; bir onceki cevre versiyonuna ait cevre bilgisinin tutulmasini ve paylasilmasini anlamsiz kilar. Bu da r secilim cevrelerine cinsiyetsizligi ve dolayisi ile asktan azade olumsuzlugu ve kucuk kalmayi getirir! Bakteriler geride bir ceset birakmadan eseysiz bolunerek cogalirlar! K secilime zit olarak r secilimi; satihta genetik ve kulturel alis verisler icin nufusu odaklayan sehirler gibi buyuk bilgi pazarlarinin olusumuna neden olmaz! Tam tersi nufus, odaklanarak sehir surlari ya da barikatlar kurmak yerine satiha yayilir! r secilim cevrelerindeki nufus; satiha yayilarak denk geldigi yerelde kucuk ve kisa vadeli mutasyon ile adaptasyon deneylerine girisir! r secilim ortaminin bas at oyuncusu bakterilerin kendi dar cevresinde kucuk capli bilgi(genetik)alis verisi yaptiklari da olur tabii!

Kuresel iklim degisikligi bizler ve devasi sehirlerimiz icin kesinlikle ongorulemez ve istikrarsiz bir cevre yaratacak! Bu ongorulemeyen afetler dunyasinda, enerji ve kaynakları merkezilestirme anlayisi, cok tehlikeli hale gelecek! Ornegin enerji uretiminin nukleer ile cografi olarak merkezilestirilmesi gibi: Fukusima! Afetlerle olusacak lojistik imkansizliklar nedeni ile merkezilesme yerine, her yerde mevcut olan yenilenebilir enerji ve kaynaklar acisindan yerellesme ile satıha yayılmak zorunda kalınacak ve bu da daha zinde(resilient) bir toplumsal yapi yaratacak.

Sehirlerin kuculerek internet gibi satiha yayilmasi kacinilmaz gibi gozukuyor. Bir web sitesini veya sehrini barindiran onlarca sunucu makinayi dusunun. Sunucu makinalardan biri ariza yaparsa, diger saglam makinalar ayni hizmeti vermeye devam edecegi icin site veya sehir ayakta kalir! Neden? Cunku tum yumurtalari ayni sepete koymadik! Satiha yayilmak; satihtaki dogal alanlarin buyuk bir bolumunu istila edip, yok etmek anlamina gelmez!

Bu satiha yayilma baglaminda aklima gelmisken Masanobu Fukuoka konu ile ilgili bugunku anlaminda kentlesmeyi hedef almayan daha radikal sayilabilecek sozlerini bir kez daha hatirlayalim: “Bence; insanlarin %100’u tarim yapiyor olsaydi, bu; ideal bir sey olurdu! Kisi basina 1012 m2 toprak verilseydi ki 5 kisilik bir aile icin 5059 m2 toprak yapardi, bu miktar toprak boyle bir aileyi bir yil boyunca beslemeye yeterdi de artirdi bile! Eger bu aile bu toprakta dogal tarim yapiyor olsaydi, hem kendileri icin hem de koydeki insanlarla birlikte sosyal etkinliklere katilabilecek cok bos vakitleri kalirdi! Kanaatimce, bu ulkeyi mutlu ve memnun bir ulke yapmanin dolaysiz yolu bu!”

Turkiye’deki ekilebilir toprak 241 milyon m2’dir. 75 milyon insana Fukuoka’nin iddia ettigi gibi kisi basina 1011 m2 toprak verilmek uzere 75 milyon 881 bin 250 m2 toprak verilse, bu miktar toplam ekilebilir arazinin sadece %31’i edecek. Yani, ulkemizin ekilebilir arazisinin 3’de 1’i, 75 milyonluk nufusun tamamina yetecek! Toplamda insanlar tarafindan yasamak icin kullanilacak alan, ulkemizin 783 milyon 562 bin m2 olan toplam yuz olcumunun sadece %10’u olacak! Tabii, ulkemiz topraklari, 2025 yilina kadar kuresel iklim degisikligi ile collesmezse! Satiha boylesine dagilsak bile, cok yer kaplamadik, oyle degil mi?

Simdi gelelim biraz onceki cogulcu ve katilimci demokrasinin surdurulebilirligi acisindan kuresel iklim degisikliginin getirecegi afetler ve olaganustu hal karsisinda Hitlerlesmeden ne yapilabilecegine? Asiri heterojen ortamlarda ve stres altinda az zamanda cok is ya da cok karar alabilme becerisi icin organik beynin mantiksal ya da akilsal mahsullerinden matematigin ise yarayabilecegini dusunuyorum ve yine  bu asiri heterojen ortamlarda ve afetlerin yaratacagi stres altinda az zamanda cok is ya da cok karar alabilme becerisi icin acik alan teknolojileri ve siddetsiz iletisim pratikleri icinde agirliklandirilmis karar matrisleri gibi benzetimsel sayisal modellerin demokratik cogulculugu ve katilimi maksimize edecegini ve karar alma zamanlarini minimize edecegini dusunuyor.

Yine yolumuz gezi parkindaki agaclarin golgesinden surdurulebilir zinde sehirlerimiz icin akil(bu durum icin sayisallastirma anlaminda) ve gonulden(vicdan ve farklilasmis bilinc hallerinden) gecti! Ne diyelim canin sagolsun, ad cordis!

A Tool for Physics Education: Language And Literature As A Pedagogic Metaphor For Quantum Mechanics

By Deniz Postaci

Since the last century, Quantum Mechanics is getting much more popular, as we see in the media, popular science magazines and books. But can Quantum Mechanics be fully or partially comprehended by man in the street? Sure, it is safe to say that nobody- even the most talented physicians – understands quantum mechanics as Feynman mentioned earlier or Quantum Mechanics makes absolutely no sense, as Roger Penrose said or if you are not completely confused by Quantum Mechanics, you do not understand it, as John Wheeler said. Do we the people really need more effective and newer metaphors to learn more about Quantum Mechanics, only if we really like to learn more about it? I think most of the college students and teachers really like to learn more about it with more effective and newer pedagogic metaphors or tools but how?

At this point, to understand it much better, we can make use of language and literature. So, looking at some relations and matchings between some aspects of language and some aspects of Quantum Mechanics would be a little more useful to understand it to some extent.

First let us remember single and double split experiment for wave and particle concepts in Quantum Mechanics: The wave of probability in Quantum Mechanics is the cause of dark and white columns of photons or electrons which are thrown by an electron or photon gun onto the detector screen after the double split plate which is located between the gun and the detector.  The pattern of dark and white columns on the detector screen shows wavy nature of matter. We can call it simply,  in a sense, Dionysian nature of matter. When we do the same experiment with single split plate, we get only one white column in the middle of the detector screen, it is exactly how particles of matter are expected to behave. This is the particle nature of matter. And we can also call it simply, in a sense, Apollonian nature of matter.

In the experiment with double split plate, the pattern on the detector screen is described by complex numbers showing interfering probabilities which create the interference pattern on the detector screen. The complex numbers of quantum probabilities are shown on a circle but not on a line between 1 and 0 as in real numbers of classical probabilities. In this sense, quantum’s circular culture of probabilities is apart from Newton’s linear culture of probabilities.

Let us come to the similar aspects between language and Quantum Mechanics: An electron or photon is everywhere in the universe until it is read by a measuring instrument. When the action of reading as one of the most important actions of language happens, the wave function of that electron or photon collapses and measuring or reading has the part collapse from many places to only one place in the universe. So, the act of reading causes the electron or photon to become a particle apart from a wave. Reading reduces the infinite realities of electron or photon into one single reality.

In this context superposition in Quantum Mechanics is another interesting aspect for language. For example, the verb “get” has many definitions in the dictionary. That is to say, it has many probabilities in the dictionary.  “get” can be in more than one location through its definitions in the dictionary simultaneously.  And we can say the meanings of “get” are super-positioned or overlapped under the initial entry of “get” in dictionary.  But when we put “get” into a sentence, the vast range of its definitions collapses and reduces radically into one meaning. I can “get” this better now! In terms of semantics, a virus will be meaningful or alive in a cell, secondly in a body and finally the world of bodies like a word is in a sentence and then in a text and then in all the texts.

Another interesting and popular aspect of quantum mechanics is entanglement. As we know, if two electrons or photons are generated from the same source, those two electrons or photons will be entangled like they are physically touching each other from every distance. No matter how far they are from each other, they can simultaneously interact together as if they were two different faces of the same thing. Entanglement in language can be easily seen in texts. All the words of a text are entangled. Any change in anywhere in a text affects the whole text immediately without losing any time. For instance, what would happen, if we changed the original text of Hamlet and put into the text something like “Hamlet’s opened his LCD TV set and watched a horror movie!”. Probably, the whole meaning of the original text would radically change without losing even the tiniest fraction of time because everything in the text is deeply entangled. On the other hand, thanks to this interconnectedness of things like that of words in a text, quantum entanglement heralds a telecommunication revolution for future Internet of things through utility fog technologies. It seems that quantum entanglement is going to replace the kingdom of electromagnetic type of communication in our daily lives. Of course, we will keep in mind Brain Greene’s counter argument about the issue related with the speed of light.

Another important aspect is quantum tunneling. As we know from our physics textbooks, a micro object like an electron or photon can tunnel through a barrier that any macro object like a soccer ball cannot penetrate. When it comes to micro world, this would happen without any damage to the barrier. In literature, fiction that can be created by signs of some sorts of language can tunnel through reality, the enclosing unbreakable walls around us. We can create and share completely imaginary, fictional worlds through different kinds of signs of languages. Thanks to this feature of language, we can tunnel through the massive wall of reality. Didn’t Plato, Thomas More and Tommaso Campanella create utopias in this way and tunnel the massive walls of their ages?

Another front-page aspect of quantum mechanics is its indeterminism:  Again, as we remember quantum indeterminism from our textbooks, we cannot determine the location and the momentum of an electron or a photon at the same moment. When we look at language, we see something quite similar to quantum indeterminism as in quantum superposition. The meaning of a word in a dictionary is undetermined because it has many meanings in the dictionary. When we put a word into a sentence in a meaningful way, that word will have only one meaning as a photon or electron turns out to be a particle. The line between dictionary and sentence is the borderline between indeterminism and determinism. This line between dictionary and sentence is a sort of Planck level of language. This is something like “The Spectrum of Possible Meanings of an Expression = Dictionary / the Expression”. This means that when the expression is larger than the dictionary level, it gets smaller spectrum of possible meanings of that expression. When the expression is smaller than sentence level, it means that it will be at the dictionary level and it will get larger spectrum of possible  meanings of that expression which makes the expression stand in many definition entries under its main entry of the word. In fact, smaller spectrum means collapsing from many places of possible meanings of the expression to a single location of meaning in the dictionary.  This is some sort of transformation from the wave of probabilities of meanings in dictionary to a particle of  a single reality like a word in a meaningful sentence. Naturally, a sentence has a  much clearer meaning in a text which has a much more clearer meaning in a local library which has a much much more clearer meaning in a global library, a textosphere which is actually a sort of dictionary. Every item in this dictionary refers to each other. Therefore, no particular item has any mass or meaning in this dictionary but every item has many references and those references or connections can interpreted as fluency or velocity of those items, providing meaning or mass to those items as in quantum probability wave length = Planck constant  / mass * velocity. For this, let’s remember Einstein’s famous formula: E=m*c2. M is mass here and m is directly related to the speed, c, that is the rate of change of location of something like velocity. We can move from one location to another location at the unit of time while we look up the meaning of a word in the dictionary. So, only connections or references between items make items emerge from the dictionary of words to the dictionary of texts.

Drilling down the language layers from a textosphere to a word, the degree of indeterminism as in the quantum probability wave gets larger and larger to the infinity but arriving at the level of letters, waves of probabilities  in meanings disappear all of a sudden and collapse to only one location. So, one letter matches only one meaning that we can define as a location. Letter K is only in one location where the sound K stands, although K usually has a longer and more different definition in the dictionary than “K is K”. But if we considered K was just K in the dictionary, then K was nothing but K. L was nothing but L. T was nothing but T…  According to this, a letter would be just a location without a meaningful object or body. Without references and connections, we would have had zero mass and velocity and which would also mean zero momentum or zero fluency that gave an exact right now and right here location without an meaningful existence or a body.

For example, in English language, we see an amazing correlation among Present Perfect Tense, Simple Past Tense and quantum’s particle and wave characteristics. In Present Perfect Tense, the exact point of the event that is shown by the verb is undetermined in the time line. That is not a point in the time line but it is a wave of probability on the time line actually. In Simple Past Tense, the exact point of the event that is shown by the verb is determined in the time line. That is not a wave of probability on the time line but it is a point in the time line actually.

In Marcia Ascher’s “Ethnomathematics: a multicultural view of mathematical ideas”, we see another striking aspect of language for quantum physics: The importance of verbs. Verbs are said to be flows like rivers that symbolize Dionysian wave nature of matter in Quantum Mechanics, whereas nouns are said to be stationary like lakes that symbolize Apollonian particle nature of matter in Quantum Mechanics. In Navajo language, we see hundred and thousands different forms of a verb to express nearly as much and varied information as an entire sentence can express in English through derivations and inflections. In the book, native symbolism and western symbolism are compared and claimed that endless circle is a very important symbol for Navajo people. Navajo say there is no border in nature unlike borders encircling their reservation camp set by the white men. According to them, everything is deeply interconnected with each other. In this river of life, each wave and eddy like nouns in the dictionary are fundamentally connected to each other through the water of the river. They say nature is never ending flow. Things are the abstracted aspects or nouns of this flow like vortice, waves and ripples which are actually just forms of water in a river. Additionally David Bohm, a prominent quantum physicist, adds to the argument for his theory of language and physical universe, rheomode(flow mode), in this way:

“Each particle is only an abstraction of a relatively invariant form of movement in the whole field of the  universe. So it would be more appropriate to say, ‘Elementary particles are on-going movements that are mutually dependent because ultimately they merge and interpenetrate.’ However, the same sort of description holds also on the larger-scale level. Thus, instead of saying, ‘An observer looks at an object’, we can more appropriately say, ‘Observation is going on, in an undivided movement involving those abstractions customarily

called “the human being” and “the object he is looking at”.’ These considerations on the overall implications of sentence structures suggest another question. Is it not possible for the

syntax and grammatical form of language to be changed so as to give a basic role to the verb rather than to the noun? “

Another interesting aspect of language for quantum mechanics is about what language is. Our daily life macro objects work in an order as in an expensive swiss watch because Newton physics prevails over this realm. Everything has rational, explainable, analytical and methodical cause and effect patterns. We may call this state Apollo of sunshine. No matter how much of rational, explainable, analytical and methodical mind like Apollo of sunshine the language has, it has the power to change this concrete reality under the Sun through its nocturnal dreaming capacity. We can create brand new things that partially exist or completely non-exist in life through language. Imagination through language is an effective way to create new worlds that don’t exist.

Language can create infinite expressions through finite set of rules(Chomsky, Generative Grammar).

In this sense language rules are finite. Although finite language rules are rational, explainable, analytical and methodical mind like Apollo of sunshine, infinite capacity of lingual expressions has still a nocturnal dreaming potential to change reality like Dionysus, the irrational and unpredictable mind of wine, music and dance. In Freud, the enlightenment of Apollo is consciousness; the drunk nocturnal imagination of Dionysus is subconsciousness.

One is the analytical mind and the another is the synthetically creative imaginative mind. Quantum Mechanics is similar to this surreal drunk nocturnal dreaming. In his book “The birth of tragedy”, Nietzsche claimed that creativity comes from the subtle harmonies of Apollonian mind and Dionysian heart. In this sense, language as a creation of nature fits this definition. Language is a product of a Dionysian heart of quantum wave domain and an Apollonian mind of quantum particle domain in which we see some sort of accord whose Latin root is ad cordis that means “to the heart and mind” and incidentally, this accordance that has created language with infinities(wave feature) with boundaries(particle feature) has a vital importance for today’s ecological problems as well in terms of communicating with nature in resonance.

As for literature, the mother of literature is language and thanks to this literature has many interesting aspects of Quantum Mechanics. For Russian Formalist Roman Jacobson, two figures of speech is very important in terms of literary theory: Metaphor and metonymy!However, these two figures can be important tools for Quantum Mechanics education. The most important feature for differentiating these two is chronological order of narration.

In metaphor, the time order of narration is nonlinear and therefore achronological but in metonymy the time order of narration is linear and serial and therefore chronological. In metaphor, time is circular, whereas in metonymy time is linear. The metonymy is how our attentive conscious mind works in a serial and linear way of narration like Apollonian mind.   This is , in some sense, the reflection of particle nature of quantum world. The metaphor is how our unconscious mind or heart works in nonlinear or circular way like Dionysian heart. This is somehow the reflection of probability wave nature of quantum world.

In terms of domains of usage of words and phrases, metonymy and metaphor are compelling for quantum world.

Metonymy is quite holographic thanks to contiguity in which the part has the capacity of representing the whole and vice versa. For instance, a crown is a part of the king but it can represent the king. The White House is a concrete part of the government but the White House is used instead of government. When somebody says the White House, s/he makes us think about every objects and their relationships the government has. This is a good example for the entanglement of quantum objects. The Albatross in the following two lines of Coleridge’s The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, “The Albatross fell off, and sank”, is the part of nature but the Albatross has the capacity of representing the whole nature killed by the rational but heartless machinery of imperial industrial society. This is another appealing example from literature in terms of domain of usage.

Metaphor “picks a target set of meanings or qualities and transfers them to another referent in a new domain of usage.” For this, an impressive example from today’s literature is “I mean, everybody is so obsessed with growth, but when you think about it, for a mature organism, a growth is basically a cancer, right? If you have a growth in your mouth, or a growth in your colon, it’s bad news, right?” by Johnathan Franzen from his ecological novel “Freedom” in which it is implied that individual human freedom should be limited to local ecological carrying capacities for the well being of our planet, when we say “The moving moon went up the sky, -And no where did abide: -Softly she was going up, – And a star or two beside.”* in order to see “O happy living things! no tongue – Their beauty might declare:- A spring of love gushed from my heart, – And I blessed them unaware: Sure my kind saint took pity on me,- And I blessed them unaware”(The Rime of the Ancient Mariner by Coleridge).  In this sense, growth here is transferred from the economical domain of usage to biological domain of usage. So this transfer gives us very good example of metaphor which is important for quantum mechanics in terms of non-locality. Growth can be anything as a referent. It can be both life as richness and death as cancer!

In metaphor, words are able to replace each other without losing their core meanings. Metaphorically we can use many words replacing many other words. All of a sudden, again we feel Derrida’s model here in a very strong way. So, looking up any given word in a dictionary is an infinite and endless process in which you will have to look up the other words in the definition of the given word. Derrida’s model for general language is quite true for metaphorical language. This model describes very well how metaphorical language works. At the same time, it explains how there is a similarity between a metaphor and waves of probabilities in Quantum Mechanics. The meaning of a word in the text will be in the meanings of other words in the dictionary if we use it as a metaphor.

Incidentally metaphor is also important for a more sustainable social context in which we are biospheral signifiers that signify all the other signifiers of nature, which signify the signifier “I”.  In fact, we signify all in nature. All also signify us in the same context. That is to say, all for one and one for all! It is just like “I and I” in Rastafari with Patois language instead of “I and you” in causal English. In terms of Quantum Mechanics, one signifies particle and all signifies wave. One can be all and/or all can be one for quantum mechanics! This makes the one compassionate and merciful for all! And that one makes  all compassionate and merciful to oneself with this recursive empathy which is very “ital” in Patois, a quite inspiring language of sustainability and quantum mechanics, for the emergence of much more peaceful nonviolent society. Also It would be useful to remember that in Patois of Rastafari Movement, “Ital” that comes from vital in English means the unity with the whole nature as “I of nature”: Here “I” can be read as a particle of a collapsed single reality of nature, “nature” as wave of probabilities.

Language and literature can be very useful tools and models for understanding complicated quantum mechanics. These are very helpful for proactive physics education as well. Incidentally, the protagonist “Quark” of quantum mechanics comes from the expression “Three quarks for Muster Mark” from “Finnegan’s Wake” by James Joyce in the 20th century. I mean the very conceptual term of quarks has already come from literature. Additionally, for quantum physics and especially its wavy nature this book is very important not only due to the expression “Three quarks for Muster Mark” but also due to the form and content of the entire book.

  • Star the Sun is a metaphor of civilized, rational, heartless, scientific and technological Apollonian mind of cities, while moon is, in some sense, Dionysian heart of conscience which can truly recognize and appreciate the ontological roots of its ecology on  Earth: The Mariner’s recognition of self as a part of the living ecological network is a kind of revelation for the purgation to get rid of the sin committed against the nature.  As a consequence of this sin, the Mariner under the influence of Apollonian solar methodical mind lost his ability to pray to sublimity in nature. When the Dionysian moon reaches the Apollonian star, something like ad cordis happens to the Mariner then. The togetherness of Dionysian moon/heart/abstract wave form of probabilities of matter and Apollonian star/mind/concrete particle form of matter reveal the beauties of creativity of nature as in Nietzsche. “A star or two beside the moon” is another interesting transformation of Apollonian heartless rational “Sun” mind into two stars like the appearance of culturally very important Sirius A and Sirius B heralding the end of human centric world view for our ecological sustainability. In the ancient cultures and also new age cultures of today, Sirius A and Sirius B is very important source for moral and ethical inspirations from extraterrestrial worlds. When we take culture for granted, the story of Sirius A and Sirius B can be considered as a metaphor for ethical inspiration. As we can see, to give meanings to metaphoric words in a poem is like looking up any given word in a dictionary is an infinite and endless process in which you will have to look up the other words in the definition of the given word. This process is really quite circular. We can’t determine, as a location, the meaning of any metaphorical word in the space of meanings. This reflects the wave of infinite possible meanings of metaphoric expression. Incidentally, the sound is very significant physical aspect of poetry. So, this aspect resembles Apollonian logical machinery of matter. Derrida’s kind of infinite circularity in meanings of metaphoric expressions on the Dionysian wave domain goes and matches well with rhythmic circular patterns of physical sounds on Apollonian particle domain in poetry’s metaphoric language like “a star or two beside the moon”.

SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR YAŞAM İÇİN DOĞA DOSTU ÖĞRETİŞİM

Görsel

Dogadaki varliklar olarak ister sehirde olalim ister kirda; hepimiz butunsel bir agin parcalariyiz. Butunsel ag icinde bir anlam kazaniyor ve surdurulebilir oluyoruz. Nasil ki, sozluk icindeki her kelime varligini diger kelimelere borclu, bizler de varligimizi doga dedigimiz buyuk ekoloji sozlugu icersindeki diger varliklara borcluyuz! Aslinda sozlukte bir kelimenin anlami diye bir sey yoktur. Sozluk, kelimelerin birbirleri ile olusturdugu bir butunsel agdir. Kelimeler, bu agdan yalitilamaz! Fakat fabrika tipi okullarimizda birbiri ile iliskileri koparilmis ve teneffuslerinden yalitilmis dersleri ve cocuklari dogal aglarindan parcalayan ve yalitan gorunur ve/ya gorunmez duvarlarla ve o duvarlardan biri olan sinavlarla bolup, solduruyoruz!
Okul disi yasamda hic kimse bir sorunla karsilastiginda o sorunu ve cozum yollarini cevresine sormadan sorusturmadan cozmeye kalkmazken, okulda aynisi kopya muamelesi ile disiplin sucuna giriyor! Gecmisten kalma bilgeligimiz bir elin nesi var iki elin sesi var derken; sanayi tipi okulumuz bunu kopya diye mahkum ediyor; ustelik bize cok ozumuz gibi gelen bilinc bile Stephen Toulmin’a gore baskalariyken! Toulmin’nin İngilizce uzerinden yaptigi bu tespite bakacak olursak, con-sci-ous-ness bilinc demek fakat kelime bilesenlerine bakildiginda “sci” Latince’de bilgi demek, ki bilim anlamina gelen “sci-ence” da ayni kokten gelir. “Con” ise birden fazla bilesen ya da kisi ile yapilan demektir. Bu durumda bilinc, birden fazla kisi ile yapilan kolektif ve hatta belki de anonim bir sey olur! Yani, ben degil; biz olur! Baskalari ile kurulan butunluklu iliskiler uzerinden ben; ben olur! İlginc bir tespit dogrusu! Yani, bilinc denen sey beynimizin icine hapsolmus bireysel bir sey degil; beynimize hem disaridan hem iceriden dogan kolektif bir ag butunlugudur.
Bedenlerimiz de disaridan gelen ve disariya giden canli ve cansiz baskalarinin sayisiz dogaclamasindan olusmakta tipki bilinc gibi… Scientific American’nin Haziran 2012 sayisina gore de insana ait 20,000 ila 25,000 gen calisirken ayni insanin sagligi icin sadece bagirsaklarinda bakteri ve diger mikroorganizmalara ait 3,3 milyon gen calisiyor. Yani, insana ait olan genlerin mikrobiyal genlere orani; binde 7,5 sadece! Bagirsak biyomunda insanin sagligi icin calisan mikrobiyal genlerin orani ise insana ait gorunen genlerin 135 kati! Durum boyleyken, fabrika tipi okullarda kolektif agdan yalitilarak parcalanmis sinav bireyselliginin doruklarinda dolasmak oldukca dusundurucu!
Bir ogrenciyi biyolojik, sosyal ve ekonomik baglamindan yalitmak, sokup almak; bir cicegi topragindan, dalindan kesip almaya benziyor! O cicek; arisi, sinegi, bocegi, suyu, ruzgari, gunesi, cevresindeki diger otu ve gubresi ile var! Buna kisaca ekoloji ya da konteks diyoruz. Yani, baglam! Konteks de İngilizce’de con-text; yani “con” digerleri ile birlikte, “text” de dokuma, baglama anlamindadir. Sozluk baglamindan yalitilmis kelime maalesef var olmayan kelimedir! Metin baglamindan yalitilmis cumle, anlamsal olarak her yere yayilmis ama aslinda belirli hicbir yerde var olmayan cumledir! Bu, tipki fabrika tipi okullarda keskin cizgilerle konularin ve alanlarin bolumlendirilerek yasamin butunluklu baglamindan sokulmesi nedeni ile egitim icerigi ve ogrencilerin her yerde olan; ama hicbir yerde olmayan bir tur otizme suruklenmesi gibidir!
Matematik ve felsefe gibi, fizik ve edebiyat gibi birbiri ile konusmayan otistik dersler, bir anlamda gelecegin birbirini dinlemeyen, empati yoksunu dar alanlarda uzmanlasmis “ben”leri evren kadar otistik bireyleri yaratir. Bu da; gonle, kalbe kor, sadece kar rakamlarindan anlayan ve akil oyunlarinda kaybolmus otistik bir iktisat anlayisi yaratir ki bu akil oyunu surdurulebilir degil; zira her kanat zittiyla ucar! Gonulsuz akil, akilsiz da gonul ucmaz! Bu noktada Nietzsche ve “Tragedya’nın dogusu”nu hatirlayinca, gonul Dionysos; akil ise Appolon gibi geliyor ve bu gonulsuz, kalpsiz; sosyonoral aynalari kirik, kor akil oyunlarinin iktisadi icindeki egitim denen sey, bu durumda cok uzun suren bir parcalanma ve baglamdan kopma sureci oluyor.
Ogrencilerin ve ogretmenlerin integral veya Gestalt zihinleri sonsuzda turevlenip parcalanarak, dogayla olan anlamsal butunlukleri tuz buz edilir! Keske turevlenerek paramparca edilmis zihinlerimizin integrali alinsa ve bu yolla dogayla kaybetmis oldugumuz butunluge tekrar kavussak! Doga dostu ogretisim icin butunu kavrayabilecek akil ve illa ki gonule dogru dogada en temel ogrenme ve ogretme sekli olan ve nice dogumlara neden olan oyunlari “bir agac gibi tek ve hur; bir orman gibi kardescesine” siniflarimizda hep birlikte dogaclasak!
Konu ile ilgili 25 Ocak 2013 Cnet’de yayinlanan MIT Media Lab Baskani Joichi Ito’nun 2013 Davos Zirvesi’nde yaptigi konusma.

Kristal Su Ekoköyü

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